Raboyseyee and Ladies,
A Wanted Man & Sexual Assault
More typically when we hear the term “A Wanted Man” we assume that person to be a fugitive from justice. Ober not so in our parsha where Yoisef takes center stage and is a wanted man, mamish. His own brothers want him dead and as the story unfolds, Yoisef will be sold into slavery and then bought by a fellow named Potiphar who wanted him -mamish- as well. The heylige Gemora, and many a medrish will tell us just what mamish means contextually; how much and badly Yoisef was wanted. But wait: there’s more wanting in the parsha.
Just last week we read about Dina, she the victim of a brutal sexual assault. And if that weren’t enough, the heylige Toirah is back this week with additional stories -yes, more than one- of lust, sexual encounters, attempted rape and more. Later in the parsha the heylige Toirah will dedicate a good number of pisukim -one entire aliya (portion reading) to yet another sexual assault, this one perpetrated by Mrs. Potiphar- unnamed mamish in the entire episode- who also wanted Yoisef. For what? For sexual activity. What is going in in the heylige Toirah? In Parshas Bereishis we were taught -by the medrish of course- that Chava was seduced by the snake. In Noiach we were shocked to read that his member may have been sodomized and castrated by his own family members. In Lech Lecha and Vayero we read that Soro was twice taken to the king’s palace for a tour, if you chap, and was saved only by the RBSO’s interference. A parsha or two later, the same was read about Rivka. Two weeks ago, we read how Reuvain bedded his step mother. What’s pshat with all this sexual abuse? What does the RBSO want us to know and learn in yeshiva?
Welcome to Parshas Vayeshev where the action is fast and furious and revolves mostly, but not fully around Yoisef. What’s pshat not fully? Mamish in the middle of the parsha and not at all related to the Yosef saga, the heylige Toirah takes a time-out to tell us about Yehudah and his sex-capade with Tamar -his own daughter in law- whom he -in his lust- mistook for a roadside hooker, and shoin. You know the rest. Why having roadside sex with a hooker, would have been ok under any circumstances, ver veyst, but the bottom line is this: from that encounter, some generation’s down the line, came Dovid Hamelech -himself no stranger to sexual encounters. He even married one of them. Does the heylige Toirah condone these relationships? Is hooker sex permissible? Is rooftop preferred? Ver veyst?! Are those engaging hopeful of bring about the Moshiach!
Ober, let’s get back -as did the heylige Ois two days ago from a whirlwind trip to Israel, about which he looks forward to sharing highlights in the coming weeks- to Yoisef who was a wanted man! Wanted by whom? Let us count the people and their means. After being sold into slavery by his holy brothers, Yoisef is purchased by Potiphar. Says the heylige Toirah (Bereishis 39:1), azoy: “When Yoisef was taken down to Egypt, Potiphar, an officer of Paroy, the captain of the guard- whatever that means- bought him from the Ishmaelites who had brought him there.
בראשׁית לט:א וְיוֹסֵף הוּרַד מִצְרָיְמָה וַיִּקְנֵהוּ פּוֹטִיפַר סְרִיס פַּרְעֹה שַׂר הַטַּבָּחִים אִישׁ מִצְרִי מִיַּד הַיִּשְׁמְעֵאלִים אֲשֶׁר הוֹרִדֻהוּ שָׁמָּה.
Ober why did Potiphar buy and want Yoisef? Was there a good reason Potiphar davka wanted to buy himself a nice Jewish slave? Was there something unique about Yoisef that attracted the buyer? The heylige Toirah does not fill in the details, not yet that is. It tells us what It wants us to know. Ober what that good enough for Rashi, the Gemora and myriad others? Not! They wanted more details. Why would this fellow Potiphar, a person of some authority –he, according to some, the head butcher, but according to other sources, the head executioner- want to buy himself a nice Jewish slave? Were there other nice Jewish people or slaves in Egypt at the time? Seemingly not; Yaakov and his family will only move to Egypt some years later. Didn’t Potiphar know that Jews don’t make good slaves?
Ober not to worry: when the Toirah goes silent and perhaps does not want us to know more, the heylige Gemora, and myriad others get going. In fact, it’s likely the case that they get going davka because the Toirah is silent. It gives them license to let their imaginations run wild, and let’s taka read what a few had to say about the motives behind Potiphar’s purchase. Behind may be the operative word, if you chap.
Says the medrish (Bereishis Rabbah 86:3) shockingly azoy: Potiphar was neutered. He was a eunuch. Shoin! Potiphar was Paroy’s saris”—he was physically castrated, for he had only taken [Yoisef as a houseslave] in order to have intercourse with him, so the Holy One, blessed be He, castrated him.
בראשית רבה פו סריס פרעה שנסתרס בגופו מלמד שלא לקחו אלא לתשמיש וסירסו הקדוש ברוך הוא בגופו….
And says the heylige Gemora (Soitah:13b), azoy: “And Potiphar [the eunuch of Paroy] bought him…” (39:1). He (Potiphar) was jealous for him, so the Malach Michoel (the RBSO’s angel) came and castrated him. Then Gavriel came and emasculated him (i.e. mutilated his penis), [which is why] at the beginning it is written “Potiphar” (posik 39:1), and at the end “Poti-phera” (posik 41:45). What? The heylige Toirah is telling us that once mutilated by the angels, and specifically because he was no longer a man, the Toirah later refers to him by his more appropriate and feminine name, Potiphera. Potiphar was both castrated and then mutilated? What? OMG! Just for buying a slave? Yes! So specifically states the heylige Gemora; Potiphar and Potiphera who was the father of Osnas -whom Yoisef went on to marry (in two parshas from now)- are the same person. The heylige Gemora explains the name change:
בבלי סוטה יג ויקנהו פוטיפר [סְרִיס פַּרְעֹה] א[מר] רב: “שקנאו לעצמו, בא מיכאל וסרסו, בא גבריאל ופרעו, כת[יב] ‘פוטיפר’ וכת[יב] ‘פוטיפרע’.”[
Says the medrish veyter azoy: Potiphar, the master purchased Yoisef as a slave to use him homo-erotically, a common practice in Rome in Late Antiquity. And now you know. These practices and traditions were later adopted by wayward rouge yeshiva rebbes and of course by certain priests of the Catholic church where it remains intact -unlike Potiphar, if you chap, ad hayoim hazeh (until today). To protect Yoisef, the angel Michoel was sent down to castrate Potiphar. The angel Gavriel follows and mutilates him, which accounts for his change of name to Poti-phera (פּוֹטִי פֶרַע)—a play on the root פ.ר.ע, which in rabbinic literature can mean (in the piel) to disarrange, i.e. mutilate, or exact retribution. Why he needed to be both mutilated and castrated, ver veyst, but now you know.
Efsher we can kler azoy: perhaps the medrish is teaching us -as it does quite often- about revenge, or better stated, the rabbinic concept of mida k’ineged mida (principle of measure for measure). Because Potiphar desired to commit a sexual offense, he was punished by loss of his sexual organ. His homoerotic desire led to his pre-emptive emasculation. The bottom line: Yoisef was wanted; he was the object of another’s sexual desire, the intended victim of sexual assault. The bottom line: the RBSO saw Yoisef’s plight and sent angles to the rescue. Ober, just as Yoisef barely got out of the woods, he was about to get stuck in the bushes, if you chap and nearly sexually assaulted again, this time by Mrs. Potiphar, the wife -mamish- of Potiphar himself. On the other hand, who could blame her? Seemingly lonely and left bereft of services expected from her husband and man of the house, she set her eyes and more on her husband’s Jewish slave.
In order to wrap our heads or arms around what took place, and almost went down, you should all review and chazir the pisukim innaveynig (review the text). For the sake of brevity (lol), and because you are all too familiar with the storyline, let us read the key introductory posik.
|6. So he left all that he had in Joseph’s hand, and he knew nothing about what was with him except the bread that he ate; and Joseph had handsome features and a beautiful complexion.||ווַיַּֽעֲזֹ֣ב כָּל־אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ֘ בְּיַד־יוֹסֵף֒ וְלֹֽא־יָדַ֤ע אִתּוֹ֙ מְא֔וּמָה כִּ֥י אִם־הַלֶּ֖חֶם אֲשֶׁר־ה֣וּא אוֹכֵ֑ל וַיְהִ֣י יוֹסֵ֔ף יְפֵה־תֹ֖אַר וִיפֵ֥ה מַרְאֶֽה:|
Ober, why would the heylige Toirah go out of its way to tell us that Yoisef was well built and very good looking? Is this what our heylige Toirah is about? What have looks to do with a person’s character and with events that followed? Were his physical features too much for Mrs. Potiphar? Or, was Yoisef efsher taunting and teasing Mrs. Potiphar with his dashing good looks?
Let’s check out the medrish which says azoy: as a result of his meteoric rise to power in his master’s house, Yoisef becomes smug and vainglorious; he begins to curl his hair and make up his eyes, acting the dandy: What is written just before this? “Now Yoisef was well built and handsome.” And in the very next posik, this: “And his master’s wife cast her eyes upon Yoisef.” [This is] like a man/hero who would sit in the market, making up (or fluttering) his eyes, fixing his hair, and lifting up his heel, saying: “Such a man/hero I am!” They said to him: “If you’re such a ‘man,’ and [also] so pleasing, here is the bear (Potiphar’s wife) standing before you, [ready to] pounce!” Curling his hair? Where have we read that before? Let us go back to very beginning of the parsha where the medrish has this to say about a 17 year old Yoisef: “Yoisef being seventeen years old…[a lad with the sons of Bilhah and Zilpah]” He behaved like a young lad, fluttering his eyelashes (or using eyeliner), curling his hair, and lifting his heel….Was Yoisef leading her on? So seemingly does the medrish imply. Is this how it went down?
Let’s find out. Nu, earlier we learned that Potiphar either did, or did not, trust Yoisef with his bread -see posik 6 above. One medrish will tell us that Yoisef’s physique and outstanding good looks were the result of his carb-loaded diet; seemingly, he ate only bread and avoided all the tarfus (non-kosher) found in the Potiphar household. We need to assume that Potiphar did not maintain a kosher kitchen. In any event, how bread helped maintain his physique, ver veyst? Has the challah/cake diet helped anyone you know slim down? Shoin, who are you to argue with a medrish? In fact, say the RambaN and the Kli Yokor azoy about bread: Yoisef remained well built and good looking davka because he ate only bread and avoided items from the non-kosher menu. Mamish? Carbs anyone?
Posik 6 also tells us that Potiphar, Yoisef’s enslaver and master, left all in Yoisef’s hand except for the bread he ate. In other words: he trusted Yoisef implicitly. And taka says the Ibn Ezra: we must take the words literally: Yoisef had Potiphar’s trust on all, except taka for the bread. Why couldn’t Yoisef touch the bread? Seemingly, Yoisef’s Jewish slave hands on Potiphar’s Egyptian bread would be an anathema, abhorrent mamish to him. Ober says the RambaN that a careful reading of the posik regarding the bread, suggests a different pshat. Pshat is that Potiphar trusted Yoisef implicitly even with the bread. Ober why would Potiphar trust his young Jewish slave? Seemingly, during a shakedown of his cell or living quarters, for those who chap, all Potiphar found was some bread. In other words: Yoisef did not steal any of Potiphar’s personal belongings as do other slaves or prisoners whenever the opportunity presents. Shoin. Ober says Rashi quoting the medrish (Bereishis Rabba 86:6), azoy: of course, Potiphar trusted Yoisef with bread: regular and whole wheat. Ober the bread the heylige Toirah is referring to in the posik, is not real bread. Instead, the bread is a euphemism for Potiphar’s own wife. Seemingly, Potiphar did not trust Yoisef with Mrs. Potiphar – who as mentioned back on page 1, goes unnamed in the entire narrative- in Yoisef’s hands.
Ober, what’s a good story like this one, one which ultimately changed the course of Jewish history forever, without the name of one of its main protagonists? Not good at all. And says the Sefer Hayoshor, that Mrs. Potiphar’s real name was Zuleika. Shoin, also a name. How this name was known when the Toirah is silent, ver veyst?
If you read posik 11 above – of course you will given the sexual tension- you will come across these words: “And the day came….” Which day was that and why does the heylige Toirah mention this specific day? Nu, these words too are subject to interpretation; several. Says the heylige Gemora (Soitah 36b): It was “the day” that Zulekia, clever and cunning seductress that she was, and after constant (for up to a full year) flirtations and advances during which she tried unsuccessfully to lure Yoisef to sleep with her, or at least, lie near her without sleeping, if you chap, had Yoisef ready. Ready for what? Nu, Rashi quotes a machloikes -what else is new- between Rav and Shmuel. Rav and Shmuel agreed on almost nothing and their myriad disagreements are sprinkled all over the heylige Gemora. In any event, says one: “that day,” was just like any other day; he was merely coming to work, nothing out of the ordinary. Ober said the other: not so! “That day…,” Yoisef’s temptations got the better of him -who cannot relate- and he was mamish ready to succumb to her advances, ready to give in, and do the myseh (act), if you chap, with her. But wait: a few more sages chimed in and had their own interpretations on those words. What was taka “that day” all about? Said Rebbe Yehudah: it was the day the Nile River overflowed and all went out to witness the event. All that is except Yoisef who reported to work. Ober said Rebbe Nechemiah: it had nothing to do with the Nile, nor anything else overflowing, except for Mrs. Potiphar’s lust for Yoisef. It was instead the ‘day’ that the theater was performing and all went down to see the comedy show being performed. So says the medrish (Yalkut Shimoni) for those interested. Nu, whatever day it was, or wasn’t, shtelt zich di kasha (the question arises), how did Potiphar’s wife beg out of the theater production or the overflowing Nile celebration? Was she not, as a married woman, expected to be at her husband’s side? Shoin, clever vixen that she was, she feigned sickness and went home. There she found Yoisef alone and locked the doors. Let’s go veyter and find out what happened next. As an aside, there are still other views as to what “that day” was, but you get the picture. The bottom line: it was the day that she sexually abused him, threw herself upon him, the day he ran out leaving his torn tunic in her hands, and the day she concocted the cover-up by blaming a hapless Yoisef for her misdeeds. The bottom line: Mrs. Potiphar too wanted Yoisef! Does sexual abuse cut both ways? Seemingly!
Shoin. Let’s recall that Yoisef was a young man, all of 17 years old when kidnapped by his loving (and not so) holy brothers who then unceremoniously sold him for $20 worth of silver. Let’s also recall the 22-year cover-up to follow. Ober, all that for another day or year. A year later, he was 18 and his hormones mistama raging. Zicher you recall being 18 and even acting 18 though decades have past, chazerim that you are. Mamish? Says Rabaynu Bachaya: although Yoisef refused to even look at Mrs. Potiphar for many months, he was but human. Nu, can we even imagine -nebech- his state of affairs, to use the term lightly, when at his young age, and given his good looks, which the heylige Toirah points out, as it does for no other male mentioned in the entire heylige Toirah, when he was being seduced daily by this very powerful woman who had some dominion over him? Says the Yafeh Toar (page 477) azoy: Yoisef’s anguish during this time was greater that what Yitzchok experienced while bound on the akeydo. Nebech! Well, blow me down and OMG! Mrs. Potiphar or Zuleika -whatever her real name was- was mamish trying to lure Yoisef daily. How so? Says the heylige Gemora (Yoma 35B): she dressed in very sexy seductive clothing which she changed several times daily. How much teasing can a young man endure? How was a young Jewish slave, bereft of family support, or a rebbe like Shaim and Ever to turn, or run to, supposed to withstand the advances of this powerful vixen of a woman, and the wife of his master? She was clearly sexually abusing him.
But he did! Says the medrish (Tanchuma): she mamish took ill from the lack of attention; Yoisef wasn’t biting; or doing anything else. She was left nebech lust-stricken. Says another medrish that she mamish begged him and tried many other tricks to get Yoisef into her boudoir, ober Yoisef stood strong, if you chap. Shoin. Are you chapping the scene? For sure, various commentators who reviewed these pisukim (verses) did, and mamish painted all the pictures the heylige Ois is so generously sharing with you. And guess what? There are more! Want more?
What happened next? On that day, she seemingly cornered him at the edge of her bed and made one more final advance. She grabbed him by his shirt, or whatever he was wearing. Somehow Yoisef refused. He ran out and left her holding his clothing. One medrish (Sefer Hayashar) tells us the following took place in the bedroom: Potiphar’s wife literally attacked Yoisef. She grabbed his throat with one hand and in her other, she held a stiletto. And she said: “if you do not listen to me (and bed me right now), I will kill you. I have locked all the doors so that no one will surprise us.” Shoin, as many husbands know, or should, one does not argue with a wife who is pointing 3- or 4-inch stilettos at your throat. Ober, did Yoisef give in? Said Reb Chiya as found in the heylige Zoihar: the events were slightly different: she taka grabbed him by his garment stating “sleep with me!” Zulikea was not wearing or holding stilettos, nor much of anything else. In any event, with or without shoes, the message was clear: she wanted Yoisef!
Ober why didn’t Yoisef grab his shirt back? Why did he opt instead to run out sans clothing and efsher -according to some- totally naked? Nu, as it turns out, this question is answered by the Tzeydah Laderech and the Ramban who tell us that it’s taka emes that Yoisef ran out without his clothing. Why? Because he would have been forced to wrestle her for the clothing and since she was his mistress -so to speak- he still showed her respect. Shoin. The pisukim tell us what followed.
She turned the tables and told her assistants that Yoisef the Hebrew came to the house with intentions of raping her. Shoin, what’s a man to do when sex abuse charges -albeit, false- are leveled against him? And listen to this bombshell: says the medrish (Targum Yoinoson -a man with incredible imagination- azoy: to bolster her claim and to prove Yoisef was a predator and had rape on his mind, she went and cracked open an egg. Was it breakfast time? Not! Instead, she spilled the egg whites all over the bed and told her staff that Yoisef left sperm behind as he ran out once she raised her voice. What next? As the Ois has told you many times, the authors of the medrish was mamish geniuses and very clever detectives they could have been as well. Was Yoisef mamish a predator? Not! To help adjudicate the charges of attempted rape charges against Yoisef by Mrs. Potiphar, and the ensuing counter charge of sexual abuse by Yoisef, we turn first to the heylige Toirah which tells us the end of the story. Let’s read pisukim 19 and 20.
|19. Now it came about when his master heard his wife’s report that she spoke to him, saying, “Your slave did such things to me,” that his wrath burned.||יטוַיְהִי֩ כִשְׁמֹ֨עַ אֲדֹנָ֜יו אֶת־דִּבְרֵ֣י אִשְׁתּ֗וֹ אֲשֶׁ֨ר דִּבְּרָ֤ה אֵלָיו֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר כַּדְּבָרִ֣ים הָאֵ֔לֶּה עָ֥שָׂה לִ֖י עַבְדֶּ֑ךָ וַיִּ֖חַר אַפּֽוֹ:|
|20. So Joseph’s master took him and put him into prison, the place where the king’s prisoners were imprisoned, and he was there in the prison.||כוַיִּקַּח֩ אֲדֹנֵ֨י יוֹסֵ֜ף אֹת֗וֹ וַיִּתְּנֵ֨הוּ֙ אֶל־בֵּ֣ית הַסֹּ֔הַר מְק֕וֹם אֲשֶׁר־אֲסִירֵ֥י כתיב אסורי הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ אֲסוּרִ֑ים וַֽיְהִי־שָׁ֖ם בְּבֵ֥ית הַסֹּֽהַר:|
Was Mrs. Potiphar guilty of sexual abuse? Were Yoisef’s hands not entirely clean? Was he entrapped mamish? Or, did he play some small part in stirring her passions? Was the RBSO involved in this entire conspiracy? Nu our sages, the medrish, and other commentators will act as jurors and here’s what they had to say.
What did Potiphar do when he heard his wife level abuse and rape charges, and efsher worse, against Yoisef? And when did he hear them? Let’s look at a few key words found in posik 19 above. There we read how the cunning wife told her husband “… your servant did such things to me.” What things was she referring to? Says Rashi and the medrish (Bereishis Rabbah 87-9) azoy: Rebbe Abahu said: while the Potiphars were enjoying an intimate moment, while Potiphar was making moves and servicing the wife, if you chap, she stated those words. In other words: she told Potiphar that whatever he was doing to her, Yoisef had made those very moves earlier! Potiphar was copying Yoisef’s moves? Mamish out of Seinfeld! Yikes. What chutzpah, assuming she was speaking the emes. Ober with all that, did Potiphar react violently as would many a husband upon learning that their wives were unfaithful? How was he to react when told that the Mrs. already enjoyed the very moves the husband was now making? He did not! Instead, he opted to place Yoisef in jail. And the question is why didn’t he instantly kill him? Who would miss a lone Jewish slave in an Egyptian country?
Shoin, for help, we turn first to the Medrish Rabba who tells us that Yoisef was taken to trial mamish where he was proven innocent. Ober say most other medroshim (exegetes) azoy: It’s clear that she made up the charges against Yoisef in order to cover up her promiscuous behavior. Moreover, her own husband did not believe her. And the proof? It’s quite poshit: had he believed her, Yoisef would taka have been killed on the spot. Who would come to the defense of a Jewish slave over in Egypt? Yoisef was likely the only Hebrew in all of Egypt. No one would miss him were he sentenced to death. Shoin. One medrish tells us that Yoisef was loved by Potiphar; he knew that Yoisef was innocent. He believed Yoisef’s story over the tale his wife -that tzatzka of a wife- was spinning. Let’s recall that Potiphar had entrusted Yoisef with his entire household and that Yoisef was found honest at every turn.
Ober why would Potiphar not trust his own wife? Was the evidence tampered with? What about the torn shirt she was now holding? Was the evidence fake? Let’s find out. Says one medrish azoy: Potiphar did call in the experts to examine the torn shirt and they, after examining it, concluded that Mrs. Potiphar was not a credible witness. Had the shirt been torn from the front, logic would have dictated that she tore it in self-defense. Ober since it was torn in the back, they concluded that Yoisef was but trying to avoid contact and that she tore it. Ober Targum Yoinoson, whom we quoted earlier, says something mamish so astounding and amazing it’s worthy of the shabbis tish. Let’s recall that in desperation, the seductress cracked open an egg and poured the egg white onto the bed where she passed it off as semen. OMG! So she told those who came running once they heard her screams.
What did Potiphar do? To his credit, he wanted the evidence examined. He called in Egypt’s finest kohanim (priests). Grada, and also as mentioned above, many a priest knows from semen on the bed; that for another day. Sadly, such knowledge is also known -as we have mentioned over and again- by a number of rogue rebbes; shoin. These priests, utilizing Egypt’s finest technology at the time, lit a candle and held it to the substance on the bed. And? They were able to determine that her story was false mamish, a total fabrication. How they knew that semen reacts differently to fire than does egg white, ver veyst, ober that’s what the Targum tells us. And his proof? It all comes together later where we learn that Yoisef never forgot their honesty. Two parshas ahead, as Parshas Vayigash closes out (Ois’s bar mitzvah parsha), we will be reading how Yoisef, then Viceroy of Egypt and the overseer of its granaries during the famine, rewarded them for their honesty. Stay tuned.
Ober, after reading the various defenses offered by Rashi, the Ramban and a number of other medroshim, we must conclude as follows. How was it that Yehudah did not recognize that he was being serviced by his own daughter-in- law? It was the will of the RBSO! He so willed these events to take place; case closed! Master plan and master seed. Tamar chapped that by bedding Yehudah she was doing the RBSO’s bidding. she was doing the RBSO’s ball this would emanate from her loins. Shoin: she’s innocent of entrapping Yehuda into a roadside encounter.
Mrs. Potiphar also had a vision. She was star-gazing and through astrology, foresaw that a child needed to be born, and that somehow, she and Yoisef were to be its ancestors. Seemingly, the skies were a shtikel cloudy that night; the stars were aligned but did not involve her. In the end, it was her daughter Osnas who was destined to have a child with Yoisef. She taka tried valiantly to bed Yoisef, she was taka infatuated with his good looks, and Yoisef may have wittingly or not played some role in attracting her to him by those very good looks he was endowed with and his grooming habits. As an aside, those very grooming habits -constantly looking in the mirror- may have also enraged his brothers. Ober it appears that she too is innocent. In the end, she too was but a pawn. She too was working -undercover- for the RBSO who commissioned and empowered agents for the mission. Shoin: Eishes Potiphar is then declared innocent of the sexual abuse of Yoisef.
The final bottom line: sexual abuse is not always what it appears to be beneath the surface, if you chap. Not so where the RBSO is directing traffic. As to why the RBSO chose Loit’s daughters, Tamar, Mrs. Potiphar to bring us to this point, ver veyst? That being said, when not being directed by the RBSO, all abuse is strictly verboten.
A gitten Shabbis, a gitten Choidesh, ana happy Chanukah.
The Heylige Oisvorfer Ruv